Master of Arts (Biblical & Theological Studies)

Master of Arts (Christian & Classical Studies)


Master of Arts (Christian & Classical Studies)

The entire MACCS curriculum is enhanced by the one tool you don’t want to go to seminary without: Logos Bible Software. This unique, technologically advanced approach to seminary gives you several things you just won’t find in other master’s programs.

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Academic Requirements for Admission:

A bachelor’s degree from an accredited institution or the educational equivalent is required.

Academic Requirements for Completion:

The Master of Arts (Christian and Classical Studies) program requires completion of a total of 48 credit hours and a comprehensive paper. To graduate, a student must earn at least a grade of C- (1.7) in each course and must have a cumulative grade point average of at least 2.5 (on a 4.0 scale).

Upon successful completion, the student is awarded the Master of Arts (Christian and Classical Studies) degree.

Start earning your master’s degree using Logos.

The application deadline is January 1—find out how you can understand Western thought and deepen your love for the gospel with a Master of Arts (Christian and Classical Studies) from Knox and Logos.

Learning Outcomes:

A graduate of the MACCS program will:

  • See Christ effectively in his suffering and glory throughout the entirety of Scripture
  • Knowledgably work with and understand the great literary and philosophical books that constitute the Western tradition
  • Articulate the development of Christian doctrinal reflection through the ancient, medieval, and modern periods
  • Articulate the Christian and non-Christian worldviews and engage the culture both poetically and philosophically

Course Requirements:


CC502: Plato and Augustine3

This first course in the Christian and Classical Studies program presents the two visions of culture as represented by the images of two cities: the city of God and the city of man. The course concentrates on a complete reading of Plato’s Republic and excerpts from Homer and Virgil, set in contrast with significant portions of Augustine’s City of God.

CC504: Aeschylus and Aristotle3

This second course in the Christian and Classical Studies program continues the “Great Conversation” of the Western Tradition in antiquity by focusing on the nature of the soul: the effects of sin and the possibility of redemption. This course incorporates selections from the comic Greek poet Aristophanes and the Greek tragedians Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. The main part of the course focuses on Aristotle with full readings of his Nichomachean Ethics, Politics, Rhetoric and Poetics. Students reflect on the ancient quarrel between poetry and philosophy by a close reading of Plato in his Apology of Socrates. The course concludes with the supplemental Christian vision of ethics as found in Augustine’s Confessions.

CC602: Aquinas and Machiavelli3

This third course in the Christian and Classical Studies curriculum further explores the conflict between the city of God and the city of man as it developed in the Middle Ages. Set against Plato’s Symposium, students read On the Necessity of Loving God by Bernard of Clairvaux, the Consolation of Philosophy of Boethius, the Summa Theologica of Aquinas (selections), the Mandragola and the Prince of Machiavelli, the Rape of Lucrece and Henry V of Shakespeare, and the Leviathan of Hobbes.

CC604: Dante and Milton3

This fourth Christian and Classical Studies course explores comedy and tragedy, as they are found both in the classical world and in the Christian church, in order to further develop an understanding of the two cities. This course provides a directed reading of Aristophanes’ great comedies (Frogs, Peace, and Birds), the Divine Comedy of Dante, Paradise Lost by Milton, and Shakespeare’s greatest tragedy (King Lear) and greatest comedy (The Tempest).

CC702: Thucydides and Tocqueville3

This fifth course in the Christian and Classical Studies program marks a transition to a focused study of political regimes and the foundations of liberty. Students are presented with the strengths and weaknesses of the various political regimes, with special attention given to democracy, through a directed reading of Thucydides’ Peloponnesian War, Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress, Tocqueville’s Democracy in America, and Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter. Additional texts employed in this study are The Merchant of Venice by Shakespeare and The Freedom of the Christian by Martin Luther.

CC704: Nietzsche and Dostoyevsky3

This sixth and capstone course in the Christian and Classical Studies program continues the discussion of political regimes, specifically as it relates to the founding and refounding of the American Republic, followed by a consideration of the divergent European visions that have challenged the Republic up to the present time. There are lectures on The Federalist Papers of Madison, Hamilton, and Jay and the Speeches of Lincoln, as well as directed readings of Nietzsche’s Beyond Good and Evil, Genealogy of Morals, and Twilight of the Idols and Dostoyevsky’s The Brothers Karamazov. *This is the capstone course in the Christian and Classical Studies program and must be taken in the last semester because it culminates in a final comprehensive paper.

New Testament Studies9 Hours/Credits

NT502: New Testament 1—Gospels and Acts3

This course presents critical and introductory issues in the scholarship of the gospels and Acts. The issues will be such topics as: the synoptic problem, seeming contradictions between the gospels, an introduction to the historical Jesus conversation, and historical considerations in the book of Acts. This class will divide itself into three sections: first, the background of second-temple Judaism before the birth of Christ; second, the gospels and particular exegetical issues inherent in gospel scholarship, including the life of Jesus; third, the book of Acts and introductory/historical issues that are particular to this important book of Church History.

NT504: New Testament 2—Epistles and Revelation3

This course will present critical and introductory issues in the New Testament epistles. The issues will include such topics as authorship, normative vs. cultural understanding of commands contained in the epistles, the authorship of disputed epistles, and the life and work of the apostle Paul. These issues will be in addition to the typical introduction and overview of the books from Romans to Revelation.

NT712: Biblical Hermeneutics3

This course is designed to introduce the student to the history and principles of interpretation as defined by the Protestant Reformed tradition. A survey of the people and events that have shaped the discipline will be followed by the rules of interpretation. Finally, the student will attempt to master the methodology of the Biblical interpretation by exegeting passages in the Greek New Testament and the Hebrew Old Testament.

Old Testament Studies6 Hours/Credits

OT602: Old Testament 1—Genesis to 2 Samuel3

This course is the first of two classes that constitute a survey of the Old Testament canon. Beginning with the creation account in Genesis, this class traces the redemptive-historical development through to the end of King David’s reign. The emphasis is on the narrative of the Bible story as presented through sacred history.

OT604: Old Testament 2—2 Samuel to Malachi3

This course completes the survey of the Old Testament canon and the conclusion of the redemptive-historical story up to the time of Christ. Much attention will be given to Hebrew Psalmody and wisdom literature as well as the prophetic oracles that established the contours of the history of Israel.

Church History Studies6 Hours/Credits

CH502: History of Christianity 1—Ancient and Medieval Church History3

This course provides a detailed study of the theology of the ancient and medieval church. In each era, key figures, confessions, and themes are examined (focusing especially on issues of Biblical interpretation, the doctrine of the Trinity, Christology, and church practice). Students gain familiarity with these eras by reading primary source texts, including the Apostolic Fathers, Irenaeus, the Cappadocians, Augustine, Cyril of Alexandria, Anselm, and Thomas Aquinas.

CH504: History of Christianity 2—Reformation to Modern Era3

This course provides a detailed study of the Protestant Reformation, Puritanism, and various modern movements and events (including revivalism, the Enlightenment, fundamentalist-modernist controversies, the Second Vatican Council, postmodernism, and the rise of global South Christianity). In each era, key figures, confessions, and themes are examined. Students gain familiarity with these eras by reading primary source texts, including Luther, Dordt, Owen, Edwards, Kant, Barth, and Machen.

Biblical Theology Studies3 Hours/Credits

ST502: Biblical Theology3

This class examines the literary and historical development of major Biblical themes across redemptive history. It is developed through a method of Biblical intertextuality and thematic concordance. It examines the relationship of protology and eschatology, and the progress of redemption focused on the centrality of Christ, His suffering and glory throughout the Scriptures. Key concepts explored include the covenants, the tabernacle/temple, and the city or “kingdom” of God.

Suggested Electives6 Hours/Credits

CC500: Homer and Virgil3

This course begins with the earliest written epic of Gilgamesh and then focuses on the foundational writings of Greece and Rome through the epic poetry that called the ancient city (polis) into being. Epic is understood as the master genre constituted by tragedy and comedy, the sorrow and joy that are the fundamental gestures of the soul. Together these genres make the myths that defined the Hellenistic world into which the gospel was first proclaimed. If we are to understand the Bible historically as well as grammatically, we must master the defining texts of the Hellenistic world. This class will have directed readings in the Theogony of Hesiod, the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer, and the Aeneid of Virgil.

CC706: Eliot and Barth3

This course explores the science and philosophy of the twentieth century that shaped the modern world. Selected writings from Marx, Lenin, T. S. Eliot, Einstein, Jean Paul Sartre, C. S. Lewis, and Karl Barth will be read.

Works Read in the Christian and Classical Studies Program:

  • The Holy Bible
  • The Epic of Gilgamesh
  • Hesiod’s Theogony, Works and Days
  • Homer’s The Iliad (selections), The Odyssey
  • Virgil’s The Aeneid
  • Plato’s The Republic, Apology of Socrates, Symposium, Phaedo
  • Thucydides’ Peloponnesian War
  • Augustine’s City of God (selections), Confessions
  • Aristophanes’ Clouds, Frogs, Peace, Birds
  • Aeschylus’ Prometheus, The Oresteia
  • Sophocles’ Oedipus the King
  • Euripides’ The Bacchae, Hippolytus
  • Aristotle’s Nichomachean Ethics, Politics, Rhetoric, Poetics
  • Clairveaux’s On the Necessity of Loving God
  • Boethius’ The Consolation of Philosophy
  • Aquinas’ Summa Theologica (selections)
  • Machiavelli’s Mandragola, The Prince
  • Shakespeare’s The Rape of Lucrece, Henry V, King Lear, The Tempest, The Merchant of Venice
  • Luther’s The Freedom of the Christian
  • Dante’s The Divine Comedy
  • Hobbes’ The Leviathan
  • Milton’s Paradise Lost
  • Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress
  • Madison, Hamilton, and Jay’s The Federalist Papers
  • Tocqueville’s Democracy in America
  • Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter
  • Lincoln’s Speeches
  • Nietzsche’s Beyond Good and Evil, Genealogy of Morals, Twilight of the Idols
  • Dostoyevsky’s The Brothers Karamazov
  • C. S. Lewis’ The Four Loves

Total: 48 Hours/Credits